The ionisation rate ζ versus the dust-to-gas ratio. The initial rise of the ionisation rate is due to the increased density of 26Al, while the plateau occurs when the rise is balanced by an increased absorption rate of positrons in dust grains. For the production of secondary electrons, which occurs in collisions with dust, we have converted to an effective rate on the gas particles for comparison. Secondary electrons come to dominate after Z ≈ 1000.
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