Abundance of UDGs as a function of halo mass. Small black dots: individual measurements per group (using real data). Thick black points and errors: identical to that shown in Fig. 3. Red points: mean UDG number densities per group when the UDGs are injected at random positions into the KiDS images, with 68% confidence interval from bootstrapping random samples. The inset shows a zoomed-in region. The abundance measurements show a clear signal, while the “randoms” are consistent with zero.
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