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Fig. 4


Temperature structure of our 3D and 1D models on the Rosseland optical depth scale τROSS. The adopted 3D model A (Table 1) is shown as a probability density distribution (orange). The ⟨ 3D ⟩ mean model is obtained by averaging the 20 snapshots of the 3D model over surfaces of equal Rosseland optical depth (black dashed line). The three 1D LHD models with αMLT = 0.5 (black), 1.0 (red), and 1.5 (green) are shown as solid lines. The 3D model reveals photospheric temperature fluctuations in layers of fixed τROSS of several 100 K (darker shaded regions are indicative of more likely temperatures).

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