Optical spectra at early times (left) and late times (right) for SN 1998bw corrected for extinction and redshift; the epochs are 8.4 and 139.4 d after the LGRB detection. In addition, optical spectra at early times and late times are shown for a selection of our models. The post-explosion epoch is indicated next to each spectrum. The (normalized and shifted) observed spectrum is shown at the top as well as overplotted as a thin black line over each model; the normalization is at 6300 Å for the left panel, and at the location of maximum flux for the right panel. Models with a larger (smaller) Ekin/Me come closer to matching the spectrum of SN 1998bw at early (late) times. The BH forming SN model r6e4BH matches best the spectral properties of SN 1998bw at early times, but models r0e2/r0e4 match better the nebular-phase spectrum. No model matches both the early- and late-time spectra of SN 1998bw.
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