Parameters of the emerging H ii regions deduced from line and continuum radiative transfer modeling (Sect. 5).
|Distance (d)||900 pc||650 pc|
|LSR systemic velocity (Vsys)||− 19 km s-1||+75 km s-1|
|Geometry||cylindrical †||cylindrical †|
|Inner radius (Rin)||45 au||0.05 au (≲2 au)|
|Outer radius (Rout)||95 au||160 au|
|Electron density (ne)||2.4 × 107()-2.0 cm-3||6.4 × 105 cm-3|
|Electron temperature (Te)||16500 K||7500 K|
|Kinematics||radial expansion||radial expansion|
|Velocity (V)||km s-1||22 km s-1|
|Kinematic age (tk)||≈15–20 yr||≲15 yr|
|Mass-loss rate (Ṁ)||8.4 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1||3.9 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1|
|Ionized mass (Mion)||2.0 × 10-4 M⊙||5.5 × 10-6M⊙|
|Distance (d)||1700 pc|
|LSR systemic velocity (Vsys)||+33 km s-1|
|Double-cone’s semi-opening angle (θa)||25°|
|Inner radius (Rin)||0.05 au (≲35 au)|
|Electron density (ne)||9 × 107exp(− (θa − θ) / 2°) cm-3|
|Electron temperature (Te)||6700 K|
|Opening angle of the ionized disk (θd)||6.5°|
|Ionized disk’s outer radius (rd)||50 au|
|Ionized outflow’s outer radius (Rout)||~150 au|
|Ionized outflow’s velocity (Vexp)||5 km s-1 (radial expansion)|
|Keplerian rotation velocity (Vrot)||32.6/ km s-1|
|Mass-loss rate (Ṁ)||2 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1|
|Ionized mass (Mion)||3.6 × 10-5M⊙|
Notes. In all cases, r is the radial distance to the center; the mass-loss rate (Ṁ) is the equivalent isotropic mass-loss rate for a constant expansion velocity and ne∝ r-2; and the departure coefficients bn used are from Storey & Hummer (1995).
For CRL 618 and M 2-9, we assume a cylindrical H ii region with an outer radius Rout at the base (i.e., along the nebula equator) and a central spherical cavity with inner radius Rin. The cylinder extends to infinity along the major axis, where ~90% of the mm-continuum is produced within ~110 au and ~50 au along the axis, respectively.
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