Top: solid (left panel), atmospheric (middle panel) and total tidal torque (right panel) exerted on a Venus-like planet as functions of the reduced forcing frequency ω/n (horizontal axis) and orbital radius a in logarithmic scale (vertical axis). The colour level corresponds to the torque in logarithmic scale with isolines at . Bottom: sign of the solid (left panel), atmospheric (middle panel) and total (right panel) tidal torque as functions of the same parameters: white (blue) areas are associated with positive (negative) torques. Stable (unstable) states of equilibrium are designated by blue (red) lines (with A = 1.88 × 1019 m s). The pink band corresponds to the habitable zone for the black body equilibrium temperature Teq = 288 K ± 20% for a 1 M⊙ Solar-type star at the age of the Sun.
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