Ratio between the SMBH accretion rate and SFR densities as a function of the redshift. Upper-left panel: constant radiative efficiency ϵ = 0.06 and constant Eddington ratio distribution at all redshifts. Upper-right panel: constant radiative efficiency ϵ = 0.2 and constant Eddington ratio distribution at all redshifts. Lower-left panel: an evolving Eddington ratio (e.g. 15 in Shankar et al. 2013), ϵ = 0.2. Lower-right panel: mass-dependent radiative efficiency ϵ from 0.05 to 0.4 linearly with BH black hole mass at all redshifts and evolving Eddington ratio.
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