Left: the mean east-west velocity relative to the Carrington rotation rate of the leading (red crosses) and trailing (black crosses) polarities over the first day after emergence for each active region. The size of the symbols represents the size of the active region (AR 11158 is the largest). The scatter is large; this emphasises the uniqueness of each active region emergence. The mean velocity of the leading polarity in the first day after emergence is 121 ± 22 m s-1 and the trailing polarity is −70 ± 13 m s-1. Right: the average velocities in bins of polewards and equatorwards latitudes divided by the median latitude (dashed vertical lines) of the EARs. The black curve shows the differential velocity of the surface plasma relative to the Carrington rotation rate. The uncertainties are given by the rms of the velocities in each bin, divided by the square root of the number of EARs in the bin.
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