Mean brightness vs. Galactic latitude, b, in the Planck CMB maps from Planck Collaboration IX (2016), in the range | l | < 60°. Solid green: NILC; dotted blue: SMICA; dot-dashed magenta: SEVEM (all at 5 arcmin resolution); dashed red: baseline Commander model at 1° resolution (Planck Collaboration X 2016). The first three methods all use inpainting to fill masked regions around bright compact features in some or all of the input maps: pixels affected by this have been omitted from the averaging. High amplitudes close to b = 0 are due to residual foreground contamination.
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