Pseudo-color plot of the electron fraction, Ye, in a slice through the x-y plane in two simulations at 500 ms of simulated time. The right panel is the simulation G13 from Table 1 and the left panel is the same simulation with the turbulent burning speed set to zero, so that the flame may only propagate conductively. The Rayleigh-Taylor fingers are clearly visible in both cases. This shows that large-scale deviations from spherical symmetry during the deflagration are not the result of turbulent burning. The simulations look very similar indeed at this time: the mean turbulent flame speed does not exceed the mean laminar flame speed in G13 until 460 ms (see Fig. 4).
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