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Fig. 4

image

Laminar and turbulent flame speeds as fractions of the sound speed cs (i.e., Mach numbers) during the first 1.5 s of the G13, J01 and H01 simulations (see Table 1). The solid lines show the average (mean) value over the entire burning front. The shaded region extends from the minimum to the maximum speed. The vertical dashed lines demarcate the times at which a) the flame becomes turbulent for the first time; b) the mean turbulent flame speed exceeds the mean laminar flame speed and c) the flame is completely turbulent. In simulation J01 (), the flame becomes turbulent slightly later than in G15 (), whereas in H01 () the flame never becomes turbulent and the simulation shows a clear sign that it will collapse into a neutron star.

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