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Fig. 3


Case of parallel (left) and perpendicular (right) shocks on protostellar surfaces: ionisation fraction, x, versus magnetic field strength, B, for the parameters specified in the third line of Table 1 (Rsh = 2 × 10-2 AU). The colour map shows the values of Emax when the conditions imposed by Eqs. (4) and (18) are simultaneously verified. The cyan contour delimits the region where Emax gets its maximum asymptotic value shown in GeV in each subplot. Vertically hatched regions refer to combinations of parameters corresponding to strong wave damping (R< 1). The solid white star in the left panel shows the values of B and x considered for the evaluation of the emerging spectrum (models in Fig. 4).

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