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Fig. 4


Past Milgromian trajectories of 3 × 100 Monte Carlo particles projected to 3 mutually orthogonal planes of O(ξ,η,ζ). The particles were initialised with original Newtonian orbital elements: a = 10 (top row), 50 (middle row), 100 (bottom row) kau, q distributed uniformly on the interval (0,8) au, cos(i) distributed uniformly on the interval (− 1,1), ω and Ω distributed uniformly on the interval (0,2π), among the particles, and mean anomaly M = 0. Then the particles were evolved back in time in the simple model of the MOC, Sect. 3.2, for one Keplerian period (1 Myr) in the case of a = 10 kau, and for 10 Myr in the case of a = 50 and 100 kau. The concentric circles at the top right corner of figures A, B, and C represent relative radii of the Milgromian (always the smaller circle) and Newtonian OC (radius = 2a; always the larger circle) as determined by the simulation and assuming that the cloud is the smallest sphere encompassing all orbits of given initial a. The Sun resides at [0, 0], as indicated by the symbol.

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