Emission contrast spectrum (left) and relative transmission spectrum (right) with and without GCRs for an Earth-like planet orbiting in the habitable zone of the M-dwarf star AD Leonis. Black line (mostly hidden under the red line): no GCRs. Red line: maximum GCRs (i.e. no planetary magnetospheric protection). The spectra were calculated for R = 1000 (total number of spectral bins).
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