Mean longitudinal magnetic field (top) and mean magnetic field modulus (bottom) of HD 18078 against rotation phase. In the top panel the different symbols distinguish observations obtained in three different consecutive cycles (in order, filled dots, open circles, and filled triangles). In the bottom panel, open squares correspond to observations obtained with AURELIE, filled squares to KPNO coudé spectra, and filled triangles to GECKO data. The two open triangles pointing downwards identify upper limit estimates from AURELIE spectra in which the Fe iiλ 6149.2 line is not magnetically resolved (see text). The short-dashed lines are the best fits of the observations by a cosine wave (for ⟨ B ⟩) and by a cosine wave and its first harmonic (for ⟨ Bz ⟩). The long-dashed lines show the variations of the two considered field moments that are predicted by the simple model discussed in Sect. 4.
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