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Fig. 1


Alfvén (CA(x), dashed curve) and background plasma flow (V0(x), dotted curve) speeds as a function of x-coordinate (across the magnetic field). Solid curve shows the sum of the two CA(x) + V0(x). The different panels show cases of a)D = 1, flat total speed profile across x-coordinate (no phase-mixing); b)D = 2, forward flow exceeding AW speed; c)D = 3 stronger forward flow, further exceeding the AW speed; and d)D = −1 backward flow.

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