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Table 2

Uncertainties on the result of the simulations.

Source Trenda Impact Ref.

Stellar wind () uncert. 4
Three dimensional structureb () × 4 1
Irradiation strength (±) × 3 2
Magnetic fields () × 3 3
Metals () × 2
Moleculesc (H2) () × 2
Boundary density (±) 50%
Temperature in lower atmosphere (±) 10%



A negative trend indicates that the effect will reduce the simulated mass loss rates.


Our mass-loss rates are reduced by this factor and the remaining uncertainty is smaller.


Only moderately irradiated smaller planets host molecular winds.

Reference. Phenomena without reference are discussed in the text. (1) Stone & Proga (2009); (2) Salz et al. (2015b); (3) Trammell et al. (2014); (4) Murray-Clay et al. (2009).

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