Two-dimensional schematic representing the two deformed bodies. The star is divided into three masses: the central one of mass M⋆ − 2μ⋆ at S, and two bulges of mass μ⋆ at S′ and S′′. Planet j is divided into three masses: the central one of mass Mpj − 2μpj at Pj, and two bulges of mass μpj at and . Ω⋆ is the star rotation vector (its norm is Ω⋆, the star rotation frequency), Ωpj is planet j rotation vector (its norm is Ωpj, the planet rotation frequency), and is a vector collinear with the orbital angular momentum of planet j (its norm is equal to the derivative of the true anomaly). erj is the radial vector.
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