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Fig. 2

image

Top: two examples of the distribution of the water-vapour volume-mixing ratio as a function of altitude. The black solid line corresponds to a volume-mixing ratio of 0 ppmv up to 3.1 km (Paranal altitude is 2.6 km), while the red dashed line corresponds to a constant relative humidity until 3.1 km. The total amount of precipitable water vapour, 2 mm, is identical for both profiles. Bottom: sample of the corresponding transmission spectra at R = 100 000. The higher amount of water vapour in the lower atmospheric layers above the observatory leads to both deeper cores and stronger continuum absorption.

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