Spectral evolution (18.5 min snapshots) during the imposed flaring scenario of 1 ES 1011+496 (intrinsic spectrum). The VHE peak rises with the synchrotron peak because of the enhanced seed photons for hadronic interactions and the redistribution via γγ → e±. The inset shows the second, orphan flare in the gamma rays (see also Fig. 5) due to enhanced proton synchrotron radiation occurring with a delay, since the protons need time to accelerate to high energies.
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