A self-consistent and time-dependent hybrid blazar emission model
Properties and application
Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum,
2 Centre for Space Research, Private Bag X2600, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa
Received: 8 May 2014
Accepted: 9 October 2014
Aims. A time-dependent emission model for blazar jets, taking acceleration due to Fermi-I and Fermi-II processes for electrons and protons as well as all relevant radiative processes self-consistently into account, is presented.
Methods. The presence of highly relativistic protons within the jet extends the simple synchrotron self-Compton case not only in the very high energy radiation of blazars, but also in the X-ray regime, introducing non-linear behaviour in the emitting region of the model by photon-meson production and emerging electron positron pair cascades.
Results. We are able to investigate the variability patterns of blazars in terms of our model in all energy bands, thus narrowing down the parameters used. The blazar 1 ES 1011+496 serves as an example of how this model is applied to high frequency peaked BL Lac objects in the presence of non-thermal protons within the jet. Typical multiband patterns are derived, which are experimentally accessible.
Key words: acceleration of particles / galaxies: active / galaxies: jets / gamma rays: general / quasars: individual: 1ES1011+496 / quasars: general
© ESO, 2014