Overview of the magnetohydrodynamic simulations employed in this work. The upper panel shows a map of continuum intensity at λc = 630 nm, Ic(x,y), normalized to the average continuum intensity on the quiet Sun (Iqs). The middle and bottom panels show maps of magnetic field strength B(x,y) and inclination γ(x,y), respectively, at an optical depth τc = 10-2. The conversion between z and τc is described in Sect. 3. The maps in this figure have a horizontal extension of 4096 × 512 grid points or 49.152 × 6.144 Mm. The figure has been compressed along the X-axis so as to fit the entire box on the same panel.
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