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Fig. 7


Distributions of the ice abundances of H2CO (upper panel) and CH3OH (lower panel) with respect to water predicted by GRAINOBLE. Standard blue lines show the distributions using the water cluster calculations of this work, thin green lines correspond to the gas-phase calculations by Peters et al. (2013), and red thick lines correspond to the ice measurements by Fuchs et al. (2009). Gray boxes show the observed abundances summarized by Oberg et al. (2011) toward low-mass protostars and dark cores.

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