Simulated values of the S-index as they would be measured for inclinations of 90° (red curves), 57° (magenta curves), 0° (blue curves) vs. facular surface coverage for solar, polar, and homogeneous distributions of active regions. The maximum possible facular surface coverage (i.e., when faculae and spots fully cover the activity belts/caps or the entire stellar surface) is about 28%, 19%, and 47% for the adopted solar, polar, and homogeneous distributions.
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