Top: temperature stratifications in the 3D hydrodynamical (grey scales indicating the temperature probability density), average ⟨3D⟩ (dashed red line), and 1D (solid red line) model atmospheres at [M/H] = 0.0. Horizontal bars show the optical depth intervals where 90% of the line equivalent width is formed (i.e., 5% to 95%): black and dashed blue bars correspond to the line forming regions in the full 3D and 1D model atmospheres, respectively (the equivalent widths of Li, O, and Na lines are 2 pm, 4 pm, and 19 pm, respectively). Bottom: RMS value of horizontal temperature fluctuations in the 3D model (black line) and temperature difference between the average ⟨3D⟩ and 1D models (dashed blue line).
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