Gas fraction as a function of redshift from a compilation of measurements in the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 3.7 (same data of Fig. 8) and including our new results. Left panel: results averaged in bins of stellar mass. Right panel: black asterisks show the average (over the whole mass range at M∗ > 1010 M⊙) evolution of the gas fraction up to z ~ 3.4. At z ≥ 2.7, the triangles show the individual values inferred from direct CO observations (Riechers et al. 2010; Magdis et al. 2012a; Saintonge et al. 2013). The hollow square is the average measurement at z ~ 3.4 determined in this work by inverting the S-K law. The dashed red line shows the evolution of the gas fraction from the semianalytic models of Lagos et al. (2011).
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