Series of decadal sunspot numbers, reconstructed between 1150 BC and 1950 AD, using the ensemble of 106 series (see text); the ensemble mean (solid line) and inferred 95% CI (shading) are shown. Decadal group sunspot numbers (Hoyt & Schatten 1998) directly observed since 1610 AD are shown in red. Horizontal dashed lines define the bounds of the three suggested modes as defined in Fig. 3: Grand minimum, Regular and Grand maximum modes, denoted “Min”, “Regular” and “Max”, respectively. Table for this plot is available at the CDS.
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