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Fig. 9


Relationship between the threshold mass Mthrs and radius Rthrs (lines; see text for definitions) compared to masses and radii of observed transiting super-Earths around G-type stars (points with error bars; (Wright et al. 2011), as of June 29, 2013, ). The dotted (blue), dashed (green), and solid (red) lines represent the Mthrs and Rthrs relationships for orbital periods of 11 days (=0.1 AU), 4 days (=0.05 AU), and 1 day (=0.02 AU), respectively. The dash-dotted (brown) line represents the planet composed of rocks. Note that black points represent planets whose orbital periods are longer than 11days. In those calculations, we have assumed the heating efficiency ε = 0.1 and the initial luminosity L0 = 1 × 1024  erg  s-1. “CoR” are short for CoRoT and “Kep” are short for Kepler.

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