Transmission spectrum of GJ 3470b. Colored points with error bars are our MOSFIRE measurements; black points are the measurements of Fukui et al. (2013) and Demory et al. (2013). The solid lines show the model transmission spectra described in Sect. 5. The ensemble of measurements rule out equilibrium-chemistry models with solar composition (blue) and 50× solar abundances (green) at 5.4σ and 3.8σ, respectively. A methane-depleted atmosphere (pink), a very highly enriched atmosphere (200× solar, light blue), and a simple flat spectrum suggestive of high-altitude haze (dashed) all remain plausible. These scenarios are discussed in Sect. 5. The dotted lines at bottom show the filter profiles (from Fukui et al. (2013), 2MASS, and Spitzer/IRAC) used to compute the band-integrated model points (shown as colored open circles).
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