Thermal profiles of Venus at high latitude (70N and S) used in the calculations. Thick black line: nominal thermal profile, characterized by a constant temperature of 220 K below 72 km and 198 K above 75 km. This profile gives the best fit of the 19-μm CO2 lines at 70N and 70S latitudes. Red: inversion profile, with T = 220 K at 57 km, T = 225 K at 66 km and T = 198 K above 75 km. Blue: inversion profile retrieved at 4.7 μm by Irwin et al. (2008) at 70 S. Green: VIRA profile retrieved at high latitude (65−75 deg., Seiff et al. 1985). Magenta (left curve): VeRa profile retrieved at 68S by Piccialli et al. (2012; Fig. 1). Magenta (right curve): VeRa profile reported at 68S by Lee et al. for a specific orbit (2012, Fig. 1). The difference between the two VeRa profiles illustrates the local and temporal variations of the temperature profile in the polar collar.
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