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Fig. 5


A simulation of the long-term evolution of the synthetic Flora (top), Koronis (middle) and Eos (bottom) families in the proper semi-major axis ap vs. the pole latitude β plane. Left: objects larger than D > 30 km, which almost do not evolve in β. Right: objects with D ≤ 30 km, with the initial conditions denoted by empty circles and an evolved state at 1 Gyr denoted by full circles. The sizes of symbols correspond to the actual diameters D. The initial conditions for Flora correspond to an isotropic size-independent velocity field with α = 3.25 and vesc = 95 m s-1, and a uniform distribution of poles (i.e. sinβ). We increase the number of objects 10 times compared to the observed members of the Flora (Koronis and Eos as well) family to improve statistics. We retain their size distribution, of course. The objects in Flora family are discarded from these plots when they left the family region (eccentricity ep = 0.1to0.18, inclination sinIp = 0.05to0.13), because they are affected by strong mean-motion or secular resonances (ν6 in this case). Thermal parameters were set as follows: the bulk density ρbulk = 2500 kg m-3, the surface density ρsurf = 1500 kg m-3, the thermal conductivity K = 0.001 W m-1 K-1, the thermal capacity Ct = 680 J kg-1, the Bond albedo A = 0.1, and the infrared emissivity ϵ = 0.9. The time step for the orbital integration is dt = 91 days and dtspin = 103 yr for the (parallel) spin integration. The parameters for Koronis and Eos are chosen similarly, only for Koronis do we use vesc = 100 m s-1, and vesc = 225 m s-1 and ρsurf = 2500 kg m-3 for Eos.

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