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Table 4

Estimated SEP injection times for the analyzed events Nos. 1–25.

No. Source Injection Injection Description
pos. time (UT) time (UT)
VDA fixed path
method 1.2 AU

1 E23 U10:31   ± 8 10:59 At high energies the main event rose directly from the low background, but a precursor event was visible in the mid-range of energies causing possible systematic errors in the VDA results. Apparent path length with VDA 2.20   ± 0.08 AU.
2 W-limb U07:56   ± 48 07:35 On the tail of an earlier event and onset clearly seen only at high energies (>30 MeV). VDA analysis was done with only 5 out of 20 channels, giving apparent path length 2.1   ± 0.34 AU.
3 E20 U14:20   ± 11 15:23 On the tail of a series of events, apparent path length 3.24   ± 0.12 AU. There are great uncertainties in the onset times due to the slow rise.
4 W29 13:05   ± 9 14:12 Clear event with not much background, lowest energy channels not usable (14 channels used for VDA). Apparent path length 2.86   ± 0.10 AU.
5 W37 06:09 There may be a rise at the time of maximum of an earlier event, but VDA was not possible.
6 W22 U00:15   ± 11 00:19 Clear event on low background, but intermittency of the data and some precursors at the beginning make VDA uncertain (8 channels used). Path length 4.82   ± 0.09 AU.
7 W37 Nothing new is seen at the time of the flare, on top of an earlier event.
8 W65 U02:30   ± 4 02:27 On the tail of earlier events and a precursor at >12 MeV. Using all 20 energy channels gives injection time 01:54   ± 11 min, path length 2.82   ± 0.16 AU. Using only the 8 highest energy channels gives 02:30   ± 4 min, path length 1.36   ± 0.03 AU.
9 E55 08:21 Event occurred on an elevated, fluctuating background, and onset was closely simultaneous at all energy channels <55 MeV. This may indicate that the shock driven by the CME did not reach magnetic connection to SOHO until close to the spacecraft.
10 E15 Very small enhancement was observed over the quiet-time background up to ~15 MeV, but the event was so small that an integration time of 10 min was required to observe it (statistics at shorter integration times were too low to see anything significant).
11 W47 04:06   ± 6 04:40 Clear SEP event observed at all energies >1.5 MeV, high background at low energies (<10 MeV). Apparent path length 2.19   ± 0.08 AU.
12 W33 15:04   ± 6 15:33 On the tail of an earlier event, strongly fluctuating rise at energies <10 MeV. Apparent path length 2.00   ± 0.06 AU.
13 W-limb On the tail of an earlier event. At energies <10 MeV the intensities were steadily falling, but at higher energies a small slow rise was observed. VDA was not possible because definite SEP onset times could not be determined.
14 W-limb On the tail of earlier events. In the energy range of <6 MeV an enhancement was observed. Probably due to the high background, the SEP event was seen to start at successively later times with increasing energy.
15 E42 Very small increases of intensities above a high background, VDA did not allow the injection time to be determined reliably.
16 E03 Precursor at low energies, above a low background. Because of the precursor, the intensities at the highest energies seemed to rise above the background later than at low energies and the VDA did not give reasonable injection time results.
17 E04 06:20   ± 4 06:44 Clear SEP event on a low background, reaching energies of ~100 MeV. Apparent path length 1.48   ± 0.05 AU.
18 W05 22:52   ± 5 22:11 Completely masked at lowest energies (<3 MeV) by an earlier event, but at higher energies visible up to ~100 MeV. Apparent path length 2.32   ± 0.06 AU.
19 E-limb Slightly elevated falling background from an earlier event, modest slow rise was visible up to ~60 MeV. Statistics were so low that VDA was not possible.
20 E-limb SEP intensities had been slowly rising for two days and a small additional jump in intensities was observed. The event seemed to have only weak velocity dispersion and a data gap made detailed analysis very uncertain.
21 E60 No association to any new SEP event. Occurred during the falling phase of an earlier event. A long gap in the ERNE data prevents identification of any possible later enhancements.
22 E67 Intensities at low energies had been slowly rising for two days. No additional enhancement at any energy was observed which could be associated with the flare and CME.
23 E47 Slowly rising background, same as in event 22. At high energies a new slow small rise was observed but it is not clear at all that this was related to the flare/CME.
24 W-limb 20:27   ± 6 20:38 Rapid and clear rise observed up to ~100 MeV, with a well-separated precursor at >10 MeV. Apparent path length of 1.85    ±  0.08 AU.
25 E-limb Several ERNE data gaps, no SEP event could be identified associated with the flare/CME event.

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