Volume 653, September 2021
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||The Sun and the Heliosphere|
|Published online||24 September 2021|
The unusual widespread solar energetic particle event on 2013 August 19
Solar origin and particle longitudinal distribution⋆
Universidad de Alcalá, Space Research Group, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
2 European Space Astronomy Center, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
3 Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
4 George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
5 Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
6 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
7 Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
8 Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA, USA
9 CIRES, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
Accepted: 22 June 2021
Context. Late on 2013 August 19, STEREO-A, STEREO-B, MESSENGER, Mars Odyssey, and the L1 spacecraft, spanning a longitudinal range of 222° in the ecliptic plane, observed an energetic particle flux increase. The widespread solar energetic particle (SEP) event was associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) that came from a region located near the far-side central meridian from Earth’s perspective. The CME erupted in two stages, and was accompanied by a late M-class flare observed as a post-eruptive arcade, persisting low-frequency (interplanetary) type II and groups of shock-accelerated type III radio bursts, all of them making this SEP event unusual.
Aims. There are two main objectives of this study, disentangling the reasons for the different intensity-time profiles observed by the spacecraft, especially at MESSENGER and STEREO-A locations, longitudinally separated by only 15°, and unravelling the single solar source related with the widespread SEP event.
Methods. The analysis of in situ data, such as particle fluxes, anisotropies and timing, and plasma and magnetic field data, is compared with the remote-sensing observations. A spheroid model is applied for the CME-driven shock reconstruction and the ENLIL model is used to characterize the heliospheric conditions, including the evolution of the magnetic connectivity to the shock.
Results. The solar source associated with the widespread SEP event is the shock driven by the CME, as the flare observed as a post-eruptive arcade is too late to explain the estimated particle onset. The different intensity-time profiles observed by STEREO-A, located at 0.97 au, and MESSENGER, at 0.33 au, can be interpreted as enhanced particle scattering beyond Mercury’s orbit. The longitudinal extent of the shock does not explain by itself the wide spread of particles in the heliosphere. The particle increase observed at L1 may be attributed to cross-field diffusion transport, and this is also the case for STEREO-B, at least until the spacecraft is eventually magnetically connected to the shock when it reaches ∼0.6 au.
Key words: Sun: particle emission / Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) / Sun: corona / Sun: heliosphere
Movies are available at https://www.aanda.org
© ESO 2021
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.