Fig. 8


Comparison between solar activity and planetary torque corresponding to case 3 in both frequency and time domain. a) Solar modulation potential φ reconstructed from cosmogenic radionuclides (Steinhilber et al. 2012). b) Wavelet coherence (WTC) between φ and the torque |N(t)|. c) Band-pass filtered annually averaged torque (green) along with φ (blue-inverted scale) around the 208 yr (de Vries) cycle. Compared to the cases (1) and (2) the results of case (3) agree less well with the observations. The analysis leads to a much smaller coherence and a less stable phase around 208 yr. The band pass filtering confirms the poor agreement between the torque and φ for this case. The red areas indicate high coherence and blue areas low coherence. The black contours show the 5% significance regions (95% confidence level).

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