Fig. 7

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Comparison between solar activity and planetary torque corresponding to case 2 in both frequency and time domain. a) Solar modulation potential φ reconstructed from cosmogenic radionuclides (Steinhilber et al. 2012). b) Wavelet coherence (WTC) between φ and the torque |N(t)|. c) Band-pass filtered annually averaged torque (green) along with φ (blue-inverted scale) around the 208 yr de Vries cycle. Results for case (2) agree with case (1) as well as with the observations. The red areas indicate high coherence and blue areas low coherence. The black contours show the 5% significance regions (95% confidence level).

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