Various seismic parameters as a function of Δνc. Top panel: the phase shift ϵc of the central radial mode. The stars divide into two clear groups, with red circles indicating H-shell burning stars. The remainder are core He-burning stars divided into stars that presumably belong to the red clump (blue triangles), the secondary clump (green squares), or the asymptotic giant branch (yellow diamonds). The dotted line is an arbitrary limit to divide the different groups. Middle panel: the average period spacing of mixed dipole modes with the classification from the top panel. The dashed line indicates the minimum separation that can be measured between two peaks around νc,0 in a 600 d-long time series. Bottom panel: ratio between central small and large frequency separation. Colours are only given in the online version.
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