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Fig. 7


Relative planetesimal surface density ΣSS,SN = fD/GΣ0/(fD/G, ⊙ Σ0,SN) at 5.2 AU leading to the formation of a planet with a final mass M ≥ 300   M, as function of the starting position of the embryo astart. A value of ΣSS,SN = 1 corresponds to an initial planetesimal surface density of 8 g/cm2 at a0 = 5.2 AU, while a value of, e.g., 3 corresponds at, e.g., 10 AU to 9 g/cm2. The top left panel shows the nominal population only (blue dots). The three other panels show non-nominal population as open red squares that overlay the nominal population that is also shown for comparison, still with blue dots. Top right: population with faster type I migration (fI = 0.1). Bottom left: population where tstart is reduced by 50%. Bottom right: population where the opacity in the planetary envelope is 2% of the interstellar value.

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