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Fig. 1

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Active region NOAA 9456: a) the solar surface 30 min before the magnetic field emergence; b) 12 h after the beginning of the emergence; c) near the maximum of evolution. The left column represents Dopplergrams with magnetic field isolines +60 G (white line) and  − 60 G (black line); the positive velocities correspond to the motion of matter away from the observer, while the negative velocities correspond to the motion of matter toward the observer. The right column represents magnetograms of the longitudinal field; the black color corresponds to the negative magnetic field, while the white one corresponds to the positive magnetic field. The small rectangle marks the calculation area of the maximum negative velocity during the first 12 h of the magnetic field emergence; the big one indicates the calculation area of the total magnetic flux. Plots: d), e) variation in the parameters investigated during the first 12 h of the magnetic field emergence; f), g) variation in the parameters investigated until the maximum of the active region evolution. The beginning of the active region appearance is marked by the vertical solid line; the extreme values of the maximum negative velocity in plot e) and the total magnetic flux in plot f) are shown by the vertical dashed line.

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