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Fig. 1

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Internal evolution of our solar-mass model star with a metallicity of  [ Fe/H ]  =  − 6.5 during the core He flash. Proton ingestion starting at t = 0 (6.3 Gyr into the stellar evolution) owing to the expansion of the HeCZ leads to the production of 13C and the consequent neutron superburst via 13C(α, n)16O. Convective regions are grey, HeCZ: He convective zone, HCZ: H convective zone. The blue solid line and the black dashed line represent the location in mass where the abundance of H is 0.0001 and 0.73, respectively. The insert is a zoomed-out view to help localize the region of interest within the star as a whole. It can be seen that some of the processed material starts to be dredged up by the encroaching convective envelope at around t = 1000 yr.

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