Volume 660, April 2022
|Number of page(s)||24|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||14 April 2022|
A VLT/FLAMES survey for massive binaries in Westerlund 1
VIII. Binary systems and orbital parameters
Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
2 Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems, Building 7000, Langstone, Hampshire PO9 1SA, UK
3 Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alicante, Carretera de San Vicente s/n, 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Spain
4 Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, Ctra de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
Accepted: 24 November 2021
Context. The galactic cluster Westerlund 1 contains a rich population of evolved, massive stars. A high binary fraction has been inferred from previous multi-wavelength observations.
Aims. We use multi-epoch spectroscopy of a large sample of early-type stars in Westerlund 1 to identify new binaries and binary candidates in the cluster.
Methods. VLT/FLAMES was used with the GIRAFFE spectrograph in HR21 mode to obtain spectra of ∼100 OB stars over a 14-month baseline in 2008 and 2009, supplemented with follow-up observations in 2011 and 2013. Radial velocities were obtained from strong Paschen series absorption lines in the I-band.
Results. We identify 20 new OB I–III binaries, a WN9h binary, and a WC9d binary, greatly increasing the number of directly confirmed binary systems in Westerlund 1, while 12 O9−9.5 Iab−III stars are identified as candidate binaries based on radial velocity changes that are inconsistent with photospheric variability. The 173.9 day SB1 W1030 represents the first longer-period system identified in the cluster, while the determination of a 53.95 day period for W44 (WR L) makes it the first Wolf-Rayet binary in Westerlund 1 with a confirmed orbital period greater than ten days. Our results suggest the binary fraction in the OB population is at least ∼40%, and may be significantly higher.
Conclusions. These results demonstrate that binary systems can be effectively identified in the population of OB I−III stars evolving off the main sequence in Westerlund 1. Future multi-epoch surveys will be able to fully characterise this population.
Key words: stars: evolution / supergiants / binaries: general / techniques: radial velocities
© ESO 2022
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