Volume 656, December 2021
|Number of page(s)||19|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||16 December 2021|
A 3.5 Mpc long radio relic in the galaxy cluster ClG 0217+70⋆
Hamburger Sternwarte, University of Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
2 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
3 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands
4 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitä di Bologna, via Gobetti 93/2, 40122 Bologna, Italy
5 INAF – Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
6 Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), PO Box 2 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
7 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
8 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
9 Thüringer Landessternwarte, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany
Accepted: 2 October 2021
Context. Megaparsec-scale radio sources in the form of halos and relics are often detected in dynamically disturbed galaxy clusters. Although they are associated with merger-induced turbulence and shocks, respectively, their formation is not fully understood.
Aims. We aim to identify the mechanisms responsible for particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification in the halo and relics of the galaxy cluster ClG 0217+70.
Methods. We observed ClG 0217+70 with LOFAR at 141 MHz and with VLA at 1.5 GHz, and we combined these observations with VLA 1.4 GHz archival data to study the morphological and spectral properties of the diffuse sources. We added Chandra archival data to examine the thermal and non-thermal properties of the halo.
Results. Our LOFAR and VLA data confirm the presence of a giant radio halo in the cluster centre and multiple relics in the outskirts. The radio and X-ray emission from the halo are correlated, implying a tight relation between the thermal and non-thermal components. The diffuse radio structure in the south-east, with a projected size of 3.5 Mpc, is the most extended radio relic detected to date. The spectral index across the relic width steepens towards the cluster centre, suggesting electron ageing in the post-shock regions. The shock Mach numbers for the relics derived from the spectral index map range between 2.0 and 3.2. However, the integrated spectral indices lead to increasingly high Mach numbers for the relics farther from the cluster centre. This discrepancy could be because the relation between injection and integrated spectra does not hold for distant shocks, suggesting that the cooling time for the radio-emitting electrons is longer than the crossing time of the shocks. The variations in the surface brightness of the relics and the low Mach numbers imply that the radio-emitting electrons are re-accelerated from fossil plasma that could originate in active galactic nuclei.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: individual: ClG 0217+70 / galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium / large-scale structure of Universe / radiation mechanisms: non-thermal / X-rays: galaxies: clusters
A copy of the reduced images is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/656/A154
© ESO 2021
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