Volume 655, November 2021
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||09 November 2021|
LBV phenomenon and binarity: The environment of HR Car⋆
ESO – European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile, Chile
2 Institute of Astronomy, Celestijnenlaan 200D Bus 2401, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3 ESO – European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
4 Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
5 Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussel, Belgium
6 Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, Chemin de l’Aérologie 1, 1530 Payerne, Switzerland
Accepted: 18 September 2021
Luminous blue variable stars (LBVs) are of great interest in massive-star evolution as they experience very high mass-loss episodes within short periods of time. HR Car is a famous member of this class in the Galaxy. It has a large circumstellar nebula and has also been confirmed as being in a binary system. One means of gaining information about the evolutionary status and physical nature of LBVs is studying their environments. We investigated the stellar content within ∼100 pc of HR Car and also its circumstellar nebula. Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of a 2′×2′ region around the star highlight the incompleteness of stellar classification for stars with magnitudes of V > 13 mag. Eight B0 to B9 stars have been identified which may lie in close spatial vicinity to HR Car. For a region with a radius of r = 1.2° (∼100 pc at a distance of 4.8 kpc) around HR Car, existing catalogs list several late O-type and early B-type stars, but only one early O-type star. Given the relatively low stellar and nebular masses in the HR Car system, no early O-type stars and only a few late O-type stars would be expected in association with HR Car. Instead, HR Car’s location in a point vector diagram suggests that HR Car is not isolated, but is part of a moving group with a population of B-type stars in a spiral arm, and it has not received a strong kick from a supernova explosion of a companion star or a merger event. Potential binary evolution pathways for the HR Car system cannot be fully explored because of the unknown nature of the companion star. Furthermore, the MUSE observations reveal the presence of a fast outflow and “bullets” that have been ejected at intervals of about 400 years. These features may have been caused by recurrent mass transfer in the system.
Key words: circumstellar matter / stars: individual: HR Car / stars: massive / stars: mass-loss / stars: variables: S Doradus / stars: winds / outflows
© ESO 2021
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.