Volume 654, October 2021
|Number of page(s)
|The Sun and the Heliosphere
|19 October 2021
Multiwavelength observations of a metric type-II event
Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
2 Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy & Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis 157 84, Zografos, Greece
Accepted: 5 August 2021
We have studied a complex metric radio event that originated in a compact flare, observed with the ARTEMIS-JLS radiospectrograph on February 12, 2010. The event was associated with a surge observed at 195 and 304 Å and with a coronal mass ejection observed by instruments on board STEREO A and B near the eastern and western limbs respectively. On the disk the event was observed at ten frequencies by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH), in Hα by the Catania observatory, in soft X-rays by GOES SXI and Hinode XRT, and in hard X-rays by RHESSI. We combined these data, together with MDI longitudinal magnetograms, to get as complete a picture of the event as possible. Our emphasis is on two type-II bursts that occurred near respective maxima in the GOES light curves. The first, associated with the main peak of the event, showed an impressive fundamental-harmonic structure, while the emission of the second consisted of three well-separated bands with superposed pulsations. Using positional information for the type-IIs from the NRH and triangulation from STEREO A and B, we found that the type-IIs were associated neither with the surge nor with the disruption of a nearby streamer, but rather with an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave probably initiated by the surge. The fundamental-harmonic structure of the first type-II showed a band split corresponding to a magnetic field strength of 18 G, a frequency ratio of 1.95 and a delay of 0.23−0.65 s of the fundamental with respect to the harmonic; moreover it became stationary shortly after its start and then drifted again. The pulsations superposed on the second type-II were broadband and had started before the burst. In addition, we detected another pulsating source, also before the second type-II, polarized in the opposite sense; the pulsations in the two sources were out of phase and hence hardly detectable in the dynamic spectrum. The pulsations had a measurable reverse frequency drift of about 2 s−1.
Key words: Sun: radio radiation / Sun: UV radiation / Sun: activity / Sun: corona / Sun: flares / Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs)
© ESO 2021
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