Volume 654, October 2021
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||26 October 2021|
Modeling the remnants of core-collapse supernovae from luminous blue variable stars★
INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo,
Piazza del Parlamento 1,
2 Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica E. Segrè, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo, Italy
3 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040, Monteporzio Catone, Italy
4 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Japan
5 INFN. Sezione di Perugia, via A. Pascoli s/n, 06125 Perugia, Italy
6 INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133, Roma, Italy
7 Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia
8 INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
Accepted: 4 August 2021
Context. Luminous blue variable stars (LBVs) are massive evolved stars that suffer sporadic and violent mass-loss events. They have been proposed as the progenitors of some core-collapse supernovae (SNe), but this idea is still debated because of a lack of strong evidence. As supernova remnants (SNRs) can carry in their morphology the fingerprints of the progenitor stars as well as of the inhomogeneous circumstellar medium (CSM) sculpted by the progenitors, the study of SNRs from LBVs could help to place core-collapse SNe in context with the evolution of massive stars.
Aims. We investigate the physical, chemical, and morphological properties of the remnants of SNe originating from LBVs in order to search for signatures in the ejecta distribution and morphology of the remnants that could reveal the nature of the progenitors.
Methods. As a template of LBVs, we considered the LBV candidate Gal 026.47+0.02. We selected a grid of models that describe the evolution of a massive star with properties consistent with those of Gal 026.47+0.02 and its final fate as a core-collapse SN. We developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that follows the post-explosion evolution of the ejecta from the breakout of the shock wave at the stellar surface to the interaction of the SNR with a CSM characterized by two dense nested toroidal shells, parametrized in agreement with multi-wavelength observations of Gal 026.47+0.02.
Results. Our models show a strong interaction of the blast wave with the CSM which determines an important slowdown of the expansion of the ejecta in the equatorial plane where the two shells lay, determining a high degree of asymmetry in the remnant. After ≈10 000 yr of evolution, the ejecta show an elongated shape forming a broad jet-like structure caused by the interaction with the shells and oriented along the axis of the toroidal shells. Models with high explosion energy show Fe-rich internal ejecta distributions surrounded by an elongated Si-rich structure with a more diffuse O-rich ejecta all around. Models with low explosion energy instead show a more homogeneous distribution of chemical elements with a very low presence of Fe-group elements.
Conclusions. The geometry and density distribution of the CSM where a LBV star goes SN are fundamental in determining the properties of the resulting SNR. For all the LBV-like progenitors explored here, we found that the remnants show a common morphology, namely elongated ejecta with an internal jet-like structure, which reflects the inhomogeneous and dense pre-SN CSM surrounding the star.
Key words: hydrodynamics / ISM: supernova remnants / supernovae: general / stars: massive / stars: individual: Gal 026.47+0.02
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© ESO 2021
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