Volume 654, October 2021
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||22 October 2021|
Morphology of supernova remnants and their halos
Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam,
2 Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Astronomy & Astrophysics Section, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, D02 XF86 Dublin 2, Ireland
3 DESY, 15738 Zeuthen, Germany
4 Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa
5 Astronomical Observatory of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Methodia 8, 79005 Lviv, Ukraine
Accepted: 18 August 2021
Context. Supernova remnants (SNRs) are known to accelerate particles to relativistic energies, on account of their nonthermal emission. The observational progress from radio to gamma-ray observations reveals more and more morphological features that need to be accounted for when modeling the emission from those objects.
Aims. We use our time-dependent acceleration code RATPaC to study the formation of extended gamma-ray halos around supernova remnants and the morphological implications that arise when the high-energetic particles start to escape from the remnant.
Methods. We performed spherically symmetric 1D simulations in which we simultaneously solved the transport equations for cosmic rays, magnetic turbulence, and the hydrodynamical flow of the thermal plasma in a volume large enough to keep all cosmic rays in the simulation. The transport equations for cosmic rays and magnetic turbulence were coupled via the cosmic-ray gradient and the spatial diffusion coefficient of the cosmic rays, while the cosmic-ray feedback onto the shock structure can be ignored. Our simulations span 25 000 yr, thus covering the free-expansion and the Sedov-Taylor phase of the remnant’s evolution.
Results. We find a strong difference in the morphology of the gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants at later stages dependent on the emission process. At early times, both the inverse-Compton and the Pion-decay morphology are shell-like. However, as soon as the maximum-energy of the freshly accelerated particles starts to fall, the inverse-Compton morphology starts to become center-filled, whereas the Pion-decay morphology keeps its shell-like structure. Escaping high-energy electrons start to form an emission halo around the remnant at this time. There are good prospects for detecting this spectrally hard emission with the future Cerenkov Telescope Array, as there are for detecting variations in the gamma-ray spectral index across the interior of the remnant. Further, we find a constantly decreasing nonthermal X-ray flux that makes a detection of X-ray unlikely after the first few thousand years of the remnants’ evolution. The radio flux is increasing throughout the SNR’s lifetime and changes from a shell-like to a more center-filled morphology later on.
Key words: turbulence / cosmic rays / ISM: supernova remnants / gamma rays: general
© ESO 2021
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