Volume 651, July 2021
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||27 July 2021|
[C II] 158 μm line emission from Orion A I. A template for extragalactic studies?
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University,
Niels Bohrweg 2,
2 University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria
3 Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Calle Serrano 121-123, 28006 Madrid, Spain
4 Telespazio Vega UK Ltd. for ESA/ESAC, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, 28691 Madrid, Spain
5 IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, CNES, UPS, 9 Av. colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
6 Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
7 I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
8 USRA/SOFIA, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 232-12, Building N232, PO Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001, USA
9 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
10 Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France
Accepted: 8 June 2021
Context. The [C II] 158 μm fine-structure line is one of the dominant coolants of the neutral interstellar medium. It is hence one of the brightest far-infrared (FIR) emission lines and can be observed not only in star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy, but also in the diffuse interstellar medium and in distant galaxies. [C II] line emission has been suggested to be a powerful tracer of star formation.
Aims. We aim to understand the origin of [C II] emission and its relation to other tracers of interstellar gas and dust. This includes a study of the heating efficiency of interstellar gas as traced by the [C II] line to test models of gas heating.
Methods. We made use of a one-square-degree map of velocity-resolved [C II] line emission toward the Orion Nebula complex, including M 43 and NGC 1977. We employed Herschel FIR photometric images to determine dust properties. Moreover, we compared with Hα emission from the ionized gas, Spitzer mid-infrared photometry to trace hot dust and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and velocity-resolved IRAM 30m CO(2–1) observations of the molecular gas.
Results. The [C II] intensity is tightly correlated with PAH emission in the IRAC 8 μm band and FIR emission from warm dust. However, the [C II] intensity depends less than linearly on the 8 μm and FIR intensity, while 8 μm and FIR intensities are approximately linearly correlated. The correlation between [C II] and CO(2–1) does not show a clear trend and is affected by the detailed geometry of the region. We find particularly low [C II]-over-FIR intensity ratios toward large columns of (warm and cold) dust, which suggest the interpretation of the “[C II] deficit” in terms of a “FIR excess”.
Conclusions. In terms of the [C II] deficit, we find clear evidence in our data for the importance of [O I] 63 μm emission in the photodissociation regions (PDRs) associated with the Huygens region. A smaller contribution is made by a decreased heating efficiency in regions of high UV irradiation. FIR emission from deeply embedded protostars leads to palpably deficient [C II]/FIR intensity ratios. The [C II] directly associated with the M 42, M 43, and NGC 1977 regions underestimates the star formation rate derived from extragalactic scaling relations. We ascribe this to the importance of [C II] emission from low surface brightness PDR surfaces of molecular clouds which are not included in our survey. Future studies of more active regions of massive star formation will be instrumental in validating the general applicability of these conclusions.
Key words: ISM: individual objects: M 42, M 43, NGC 1977 / infrared: ISM / ISM: structure
© ESO 2021
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