Volume 651, July 2021
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||14 July 2021|
The SPHERE infrared survey for exoplanets (SHINE)
II. Observations, data reduction and analysis, detection performances, and initial results★
CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, ENS,
9 avenue Charles André,
Saint Genis Laval Cedex,
2 Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
3 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo della Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
4 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
5 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
6 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
7 STAR Institute, Université de Liège, Allée du Six Août 19c, 4000 Liège, Belgium
8 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
9 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
10 Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
11 Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, Edinburgh, UK
12 Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
13 Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
14 Université Côte d’Azur, OCA, CNRS, Lagrange, France
15 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
16 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura, Santiago 19, Chile
17 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
18 Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
19 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, Science Park 9, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
20 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía, CNRS/INSU UMI 3386 and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
21 DOTA, ONERA (Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Arospatiales), Université Paris Saclay, 92322 Chatillon, France
22 NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
23 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
24 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
25 Núcleo Milenio Formación Planetaria – NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
26 Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, CNRS, Institut d’Optique Graduate School, Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR 5516, 42023, SAINT-ETIENNE, France
27 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo, 8, 35121 Padova, Italy
28 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
29 Division of Medical Image Computing, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
30 Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg 620002, Russia
31 INAF – Catania Astrophysical Observatory, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
32 Pixyl, 5 Avenue du Grand Sablon, 38700 La Tronche, France
Accepted: 6 February 2021
Context. In recent decades, direct imaging has confirmed the existence of substellar companions (exoplanets or brown dwarfs) on wide orbits (>10 au) around their host stars. In striving to understand their formation and evolution mechanisms, in 2015 we initiated the SPHERE infrared survey for exoplanets (SHINE), a systematic direct imaging survey of young, nearby stars that is targeted at exploring their demographics.
Aims. We aim to detect and characterize the population of giant planets and brown dwarfs beyond the snow line around young, nearby stars. Combined with the survey completeness, our observations offer the opportunity to constrain the statistical properties (occurrence, mass and orbital distributions, dependency on the stellar mass) of these young giant planets.
Methods. In this study, we present the observing and data analysis strategy, the ranking process of the detected candidates, and the survey performances for a subsample of 150 stars that are representative of the full SHINE sample. Observations were conducted in a homogeneous way between February 2015 and February 2017 with the dedicated ground-based VLT/SPHERE instrument equipped with the IFS integral field spectrograph and the IRDIS dual-band imager, covering a spectral range between 0.9 and 2.3 μm. We used coronographic, angular, and spectral differential imaging techniques to achieve the best detection performances for this study, down to the planetary mass regime.
Results. We processed, in a uniform manner, more than 300 SHINE observations and datasets to assess the survey typical sensitivity as a function of the host star and of the observing conditions. The median detection performance reached 5σ-contrasts of 13 mag at 200 mas and 14.2 mag at 800 mas with the IFS (YJ and YJH bands), and of 11.8 mag at 200 mas, 13.1 mag at 800 mas, and 15.8 mag at 3 as with IRDIS in H band, delivering one of the deepest sensitivity surveys thus far for young, nearby stars. A total of sixteen substellar companions were imaged in this first part of SHINE: seven brown dwarf companions and ten planetary-mass companions.These include two new discoveries, HIP 65426 b and HIP 64892 B, but not the planets around PDS70 that had not been originally selected for the SHINE core sample. A total of 1483 candidates were detected, mainly in the large field of view that characterizes IRDIS. The color-magnitude diagrams, low-resolution spectrum (when available with IFS), and follow-up observations enabled us to identify the nature (background contaminant or comoving companion) of about 86% of our subsample. The remaining cases are often connected to crowded-field follow-up observations that were missing. Finally, even though SHINE was not initially designed for disk searches, we imaged twelve circumstellar disks, including three new detections around the HIP 73145, HIP 86598, and HD 106906 systems.
Conclusions. Nowadays, direct imaging provides a unique opportunity to probe the outer part of exoplanetary systems beyond 10 au to explore planetary architectures, as highlighted by the discoveries of: one new exoplanet, one new brown dwarf companion, and three new debris disks during this early phase of SHINE. It also offers the opportunity to explore and revisit the physical and orbital properties of these young, giant planets and brown dwarf companions (relative position, photometry, and low-resolution spectrum in near-infrared, predicted masses, and contrast in order to search for additional companions). Finally, these results highlight the importance of finalizing the SHINE systematic observation of about 500 young, nearby stars for a full exploration of their outer part to explore the demographics of young giant planets beyond 10 au and to identify the most interesting systems for the next generation of high-contrast imagers on very large and extremely large telescopes.
Key words: methods: observational / planets and satellites: detection / techniques: image processing / methods: statistical / instrumentation: high angular resolution / planets and satellites: formation
Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/651/A71
© M. Langlois et al. 2021
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