Volume 647, March 2021
|Number of page(s)||24|
|Section||The Sun and the Heliosphere|
|Published online||24 March 2021|
Long-term evolution of three light bridges developed on the same sunspot
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
2 Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Astrofísica, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
3 W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085, USA
4 Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
5 High Altitude Observatory (NCAR), 3080 Center Green Dr., Boulder, CO 80301, USA
Accepted: 25 January 2021
One important feature of sunspots is the presence of light bridges. These structures are elongated and bright (as compared to the umbra) features that seem to be related to the formation and evolution of sunspots. In this work, we studied the long-term evolution and the stratification of different atmospheric parameters of three light bridges formed in the same host sunspot by different mechanisms. To accomplish this, we used data taken with the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph installed at the GREGOR telescope. These data were inverted to infer the physical parameters of the atmosphere where the observed spectral profiles were formed of the three light bridges. We find that, in general, the behaviour of the three light bridges is typical of this kind of structure with the magnetic field strength, inclination, and temperature values between the values at the umbra and the penumbra. We also find that they are of a significantly non-magnetic character (particularly at the axis of the light bridges) as it is deduced from the filling factor. In addition, within the common behaviour of the physical properties of light bridges, we observe that each one exhibits a particular behaviour. Another interesting result is that the light bridge cools down, the magnetic field decreases, and the magnetic field lines get more inclined higher in the atmosphere. Finally, we studied the magnetic and non-magnetic line-of-sight velocities of the light bridges. The former shows that the magnetic component is at rest and, interestingly, its variation with optical depth shows a bi-modal behaviour. For the line-of-sight velocity of the non-magnetic component, we see that the core of the light bridge is at rest or with shallow upflows and clear downflows sinking through the edges.
Key words: sunspots / Sun: magnetic fields / Sun: photosphere / Sun: infrared
© ESO 2021
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