Volume 647, March 2021
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||11 March 2021|
Parsec-scale HI outflows in powerful radio galaxies⋆
ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
2 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
3 National Research Council, Resident at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375, USA
4 Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
5 Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710, Australia
Accepted: 21 September 2020
Massive outflows of neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) have been observed in absorption in a number of radio galaxies and are considered a signature of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. These outflows on kiloparsec scales have not been investigated in great detail as they require high-angular-resolution observations to be spatially resolved. In some radio AGN, they are likely to be the result of the radio jets interacting with the interstellar medium. We have used the global very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) array to map the H I outflow in a small sample of young and restarted radio galaxies that we previously observed with the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at a lower resolution. Here we report on our findings for 4C 52.37 and 3C 293 and we discuss the sample including the previously published 4C 12.50 and 3C 236. For 4C 52.37, we present the first ever H I VLBI observations, which recovered the majority of the outflowing H I gas in the form of clouds toward the central 100 pc of the AGN. The clouds are blueshifted by up to ∼600 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity. 3C 293 is largely resolved out in our VLBI observation, but toward the VLBI core we detect some outflowing H I gas blueshifted with respect to the systemic velocity by up to ∼300 km s−1. We also find indications of outflowing gas toward the other parts of the western lobe suggesting that the H I outflow is extended. Overall, we find that the fraction of H I gas recovered by our VLBI observations varies significantly within our sample, ranging from complete (4C 12.50) to marginal (3C 293). However, in all cases we find evidence for a clumpy structure of both the outflowing and the quiescent gas, consistent with predictions from numerical simulations. All the outflows include at least a component of relatively compact clouds with masses in the range of 104 − 105 M⊙. The outflowing clouds are often already observed at a few tens of parsecs (in projection) from the core. We find indications that the H I outflow might have a diffuse component, especially in larger sources. Our results support the interpretation that we observe these AGNs at different stages in the evolution of the interaction between the jet and the interstellar medium and this is reflected in the properties of the outflowing gas as predicted by numerical simulations.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: jets / galaxies: general / galaxies: nuclei / techniques: high angular resolution / ISM: jets and outflows
The reduced continuum images and spectral-line cubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/647/A63
© ESO 2021
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.