Volume 646, February 2021
|Number of page(s)||19|
|Published online||19 February 2021|
Direct characterization of young giant exoplanets at high spectral resolution by coupling SPHERE and CRIRES+
Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
2 Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev KAI, 10 K. Marx, Kazan, 420111 Russia
3 Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 063404 Nice Cedex 4, France
4 Institute for Astrophysics, Georg-August University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
5 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK
6 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
7 Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Accepted: 27 August 2020
Studies of atmospheres of directly imaged extrasolar planets with high-resolution spectrographs have shown that their characterization is predominantly limited by noise on the stellar halo at the location of the studied exoplanet. An instrumental combination of high-contrast imaging and high spectral resolution that suppresses this noise and resolves the spectral lines can therefore yield higher quality spectra. We study the performance of the proposed HiRISE fiber coupling between the direct imager SPHERE and the spectrograph CRIRES+ at the Very Large Telescope for spectral characterization of directly imaged planets. Using end-to-end simulations of HiRISE we determine the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the detection of molecular species for known extrasolar planets in H and K bands, and compare them to CRIRES+. We investigate the ultimate detection limits of HiRISE as a function of stellar magnitude, and we quantify the impact of different coronagraphs and of the system transmission. We find that HiRISE largely outperforms CRIRES+ for companions around bright hosts like β Pictoris or 51 Eridani. For an H = 3.5 host, we observe a gain of a factor of up to 16 in observing time with HiRISE to reach the same S/N on a companion at 200 mas. More generally, HiRISE provides better performance than CRIRES+ in 2 h integration times between 50 and 350 mas for hosts with H < 8.5 and between 50 and 700 mas for H < 7. For fainter hosts like PDS 70 and HIP 65426, no significant improvements are observed. We find that using no coronagraph yields the best S/N when characterizing known exoplanets due to higher transmission and fiber-based starlight suppression. We demonstrate that the overall transmission of the system is in fact the main driver of performance. Finally, we show that HiRISE outperforms the best detection limits of SPHERE for bright stars, opening major possibilities for the characterization of future planetary companions detected by other techniques.
Key words: instrumentation: high angular resolution / instrumentation: spectrographs / infrared: planetary systems
© G. P. P. L. Otten et al. 2021
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